Class #24 – Thursday, December 18, 2012

December 13, 2012

1:05 – 1:45  Quiz (can leave when done – come back for 1:45)

1:45 – 1:55  Grade Quiz & PIZZA!

1:55 – 2:10  Sport Psychology in Germany  – Sabine Milger

2:10  School’s out!


Class #23 – Tuesday, Dec. 11, 2012

December 11, 2012


Culturally informed Sport Psychology

Numerous factors are involved in the cultural composition of both the athlete and the sport psychology practitioner, including ethnicity, socioeconomic background and status, race, socialization, sexual orientation, religion, gender, and geographic location. These often deeply ingrained personal variables can certainly affect the nature of the therapeutic relationship, intervention strategies, and intervention outcomes with athletic clientele. Yet, the field of sport psychology has been slow to discuss these critical variables or to conceptualize their impact on day-to-day athletic performance, overall psychological well-being, the therapeutic relationship, and success of interventions. The field of sport psychology needs to ensure to ensure that sport psychologists are gaining a comprehensive understanding of the athletes with whom they work, demonstrating respect for and integration of cultural constructs in the treatment room, and maintaining personal and professional self-awareness (from the Journal of Clinical Sport Psychology, 2012).

First Impressions

Tin Cup – Certification/Licensure/Ethics for “sport psychologists”

APA Division 47 Facebook page

BASES (British) Sport Psychology Certification

Bend it Like Beckham – Coach Cultural Competence?

Ping Pong – from Samurai to Science: Sport Psychology in Japan:  japan017

League of Their Own – Gender Equity: Can we Change?

Self-Assessment for Cultural CompetenceCultural Competence Personal Reflection

Next Class

Quiz: 30 questions, 40 minutes.


Study for quiz!


Introduction to Cultural Sport Psychology


Final Quiz Bank of Questions Posted

December 9, 2012

63 questions – there will be 30 on next Thursday’s (Dec. 13):  ESS 220 Final Quiz Bank.

Here are some studying suggestions from the midterm quiz:

Mental Preparation for Taking Academic Tests – Here is a handout on how to use the mental skills we have been working on to address any anxiety you may have around taking the quiz:  Test Anxiety Suggestions.

“Probably” your best studying strategy at this point, will be to simply try and answer the questions by consulting the text.

Here is the text from the post which outlines your best “studying” strategy as you go through the course:

“Study Recommendation:

  • Pay attention in lectures – first exposure, link to what you already know, activity that “uses” concepts, big picture;
  • Read text, highlighting important points and difficult points/questions;
  • Re-read and answer difficult points;
  • Complete activities without rushing – think about links to text;
  • Focus on areas in lecture slides, key terms, critical questions”

But, again, at this point, your best strategy is to find the answers to the questions.  The students who will do best (probably), will be the one’s who have done the above recommendations each week as we move through the course.

Class # 22 – Thursday, November 6, 2012

December 6, 2012


Developmental psychologist Susan Harter has developed a theory around how children develop “competence motivation”.  Her theory is interactional and accounts for both situational (parents, friends) and personal (trait anxiety) factors in the child’s context (B = P X S).  Terms similar to “competence motivation” that we have seen already include:

  • achievement motivation
  • competitiveness
  • self-confidence.

The film Billy Elliot provides a perfect example of the two possible paths illustrated in Harter’s theory.

Competence Motivation (Gould & Weinberg, 2008)

Harter's Model of Competence Motivation

Lecture Slides

Chap. 22 Children Slides


Start to review the modules we have completed since the mid-term quiz a) review our class posts and complete any portfolio items; b) do the text readings; c) keep an eye out for the test bank of questions (Saturday?).

Next Class

Cultural Competence (Cultural Sport Psychology)

Class #21 – Tuesday, December 4, 2012

December 4, 2012

Overview:  Although “self-confidence” is a mental skill, it is also a motivational construct, and so we will be examining Bandura’s Theory of Self-Efficacy as it applies to sport.

Where have we seen self-confidence before?

CSAI-2 and CTAI-2 (self-confidence subscale) ; Loehr’s IPS Rating Card and you Best-Ever Performance Descriptions

Complete the TSCI: TSCI.Confidence012

Lecture Slides:  Self.Confidence.Lecture.Slides

Reference Material from Sport Psychology Goes to the Movies:  “Invincible”


1. Read Ch. 14 in the text

Class #20 – Thursday, November 29, 2012

December 4, 2012

Overview:  We will use Vallerand’s Model of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation to examine the main characters in the film “Bend it Like Beckham”.

Here are some references from “Sport Psychology Goes to the Movies”.


Class #19 – Tuesday, November 27, 2012

November 27, 2012


The purpose of today’s class is to complete our examination of Achievement Goals Theory – currently the most commonly researched theory of sport motivation.

Follow-up From Last Class

The purpose of writing a short analysis of the film Ping Pong was to see if you were able to apply the AGT model to other situations (you have already applied the model to yourself by completing the questionnaires and reporting on your own personal path through sport.

  1. Break into five groups and individually  present the results of your analysis regarding the motivational orientation of the film’s main characters and the motivational climate.  Try and come to a consensus and record your group’s opinion on the Viewing Guide sheet (15 minutes).
  2. Form a second group and briefly report your prior group’s findings.  Resolve any discrepencies, and then briefly report back to the class on the resolution of these differences. (10 min.).

Ping Pong Papers – Two student examples

Ping Pong (Ziemba, 2011)

Ping Pong (Simpson, 2011)

Do We Need to Revise the AGT Model based on our analysis of Ping Pong

  • Purpose of models (Lyle, 2002):  Purpose of Models
  • Revisions?
  • Did AGT allow to fully analyze and understand all aspects of motivated behavior in the film?  Smile?


Complete and score the SMS:  SMS English Version

Class #18 – Thursday, Nov. 15, 2012

November 13, 2012


The purpose of this class is to complete the examination of AGT, with an emphasis on the importance of motivational climate.  We will also go over the requirements for the AGT assignment which will be used to replace our Thanksgiving class.

Follow-up from Last Class

Scoring the TEOSQ

Scoring the PMSCQ-2

Lecture Slides from text:  Motivation Lecture Slides

AGT – The Importance of Motivational Climate – Research

Female Perceptions of AGT Climate

Role of Peers in Motivational Climate:  Peer Motivational Climate (Ntoumanis et al., 2006)

Combo – AGT, Cohesion & PST:  Cohesion, Motivation and Self-Talk

**Copy Ping Pong to your laptop**

Ping Pong Analysis

Analyze several scenes from the film using the viewing guide:  Pingpong Viewing Guide (AGT)

Ping Pong Viewing Guide Student Example


  1. Complete the Ping Pong assignment – 2-3 pages double-spaced, APA format.  Bring a hard copy to next class, ready to discuss your paper:  Pingpong AGT Assignment.
  2. This paper will become part of your portfolio.

Class #17 Tuesday, Nov. 13, 2012

November 13, 2012


We are entering the fourth part of our course – sport motivation.  There are several important and current models of motivation which can help us explain motivated behavior in sport.  Since the best models are built on prior research, and examination of earlier models can be helpful in understanding motivation (e.g., history is important).

Follow-up From Last Class

Chelladurai’s MML

Overview of Motivation (Chapter 3)

  • key points from previous research on motivation.

Achievement Goal Theory (AGT)


  1. Read Williams & Gill (1995) for an overview of AGT theory:  Williams & Gill (1995) – AGT Overview
  2. Complete the PMCSQ-2:  PMCSQ-2.
  3. After completing the PMSQ, figure out which items belong to the Task subscale, and which items belong to the EGO subscale, and then score your results (i.e., you should have two subscale scores).
  4. Read Ch. 3 and post any questions on the bottom of this page.
  5. Bring a thumb drive to class to copy Ping Pong to your laptop for the Thanksgiving Class replacement (you will watch and analyze film).

Class #16 – Tuesday, November 6, 2012

November 6, 2012

Note:  If this class is cancelled (Tim/medical), the term paper will be adjusted so that Chelladurai’s Model (the subject of today’s class) will be omitted from the analysis used to write your term paper.  For the leadership aspects of your paper, only the Managerial Grid and Situational Leadership Models will be used. You will still be responsible for this material on the final quiz. You are also still responsible for completing the Homework listed at the bottom of this post.


The purpose of today’s class is to examine a model of leadership for sport that was developed by sport researchers.  The two previous models we looked at were models developed in business settings, and adapted for use in a sport setting.  Chelladurai’s Multidimensional Model of Leadership (MML) was developed to help analyze the effect of leader (coach) behavior on athlete satisfaction and performance, helping answer such questions as “What sort of leadership behaviors do female athletes prefer?”

Chelladurai (Cheladurai & Saleh, 1980) also developed a questionnaire (the Leadership for Sport Scale; LSS)  to assess leader behavior and also athlete and self- perceptions of leader behavior. questionnaire.  The LSS has five subscales that measure  leadership behavior (autocratic, instructional, etc.)

Lecture Slides:   MML Lecture Slides

Complete the LSS  for your portfolio using the instructions:  “I would prefer my coach to…”:  LSS


Riemer, H. A., & Toon, K. K. (2001). Leadership and satisfaction in tennis: examination of congruence, gender, and ability. Research Quarterly for Exercise & Sport, 72(3), 243-256.  Tennis Leadership Gender

Sherman, C. A., Fuller, R. R., & Speed, H. D. (2000). Gender comparisons of preferred coaching behaviors in Australian sports. Journal of Sport Behavior, 23(4), 389-406.  Sherman & Fuller (LSS & Gender in Australia)


1. Read (or re-read) Ch. 9 on Leadership (not the Cognitive Mediational Model) in the text focusing on the MML.

2. Read one of the above articles for a fuller understanding of Chelladurai’s Model and Questionnaire.

3. Bring a draft of your PST program report to next class (1-2 pages double-spaced plus detailed PST procedures/instructions).

4. Bring an outline of your term paper to next class (1-2 pages – point form).

5.  Note that I have added three examples of previous students’ PST reports, so that you can get a concrete picture of what your final project should look like (remember they are examples and you are to refer to assignment instructions).